Title: Alterations of bone metabolism in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1
- Agnieszka Pater, Grażyna Odrowąż-Sypniewska
- Review articles
- Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
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- Final page:
- diabetes mellitus type 1, bones, osteoporosis\
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adolescents.
The incidence of diabetes mellitus type 1 is increasing rapidly worldwide. Recently, the largest rate
of increase is observed in children aged 0-4 years. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular
and macrovascular complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiomyopathy.
Pathological changes occur in the bone structure. The lack of diagnosis and treatment of
alterations of the bone tissue metabolism may lead to osteoporosis, which is characterized by much
reduced bone mineral density and changes in the microarchitecture of the bone tissue, which in
consequence results in increased susceptibility to fractures. Diabetes mellitus type 1 most often
starts before achieving peak bone mass, which constitutes a point of reference for predicting risk
of fractures in a later period of life. Mechanisms responsible for loss of the bone tissue in diabetes
of type 1 still remain unexplained. Many research findings indicate the anabolic role of insulin and
insulin-like growth factors, mainly IGF-1. The aim of this manuscript is to review recent papers about
alterations of bone metabolism in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1.