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Title: The vitamin D and calcium consumption and bone quality in children of Łódź (Poland) at the age 9-13 years

Agnieszka Rusińska, Izabela Michałus, Jolanta Karalus, Joanna Golec, Danuta Chlebna-Sokół
Original articles
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
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Final page:
vitamin D, calcium, children, bones

Introduction: Only few publications concern the influence of the vitamin D and calcium consumption on the bone mineralization in the developmental age. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was the analysis of the vitamin D and calcium diet supply in relation to the bone status assessed with Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) in growing children. Material and methods: The study comprised 643 pupils (384 girls and 259 boys) at the age 9-13 years from primary schools in Łódź. The medium daily consumption of vitamin D and calcium was estimated with the computer program Dieta 2. In all children the QUS was performed. Results: Extreme deficiency of vitamin D was found in the diet of nearly all examined children (in 96,7% schoolgirls and 95,7% schoolboys). Girls consumed on average 25,5% of recommended values, boys 33,3%. Considerable deficiency of diet calcium was observed in 92% schoolgirls and 81,9% of schoolboys. The medium daily consumption of calcium was higher than vitamin D and reached 59,2% of recommended values in girls and 66,2% in boys. In 48% of children an decrease of at least one of the QUS parameters was observed. The statistical analysis showed positive, significant correlation between QUS parameters and calcium consumption, it was not observed for vitamin D. Conclusions: 1. The deficiency of diet vitamin D and calcium is common in children in Łódź. 2. The extremely low supply of diet vitamin D does not meet the recommended values. 3. The lowering of the QUS parameters observed in 48% of children indicates for worse bone mineralization and bone quality. 4. The results of this study indicate for the necessity of changes in nutritional habits of children and adolescence and if it is not possible the supplementation of vitamin D and calcium.