Title: Application of copper-binding peptides in the cosmetic dermatology.
- Arkadiusz Gruchlik, Ewa Chodurek, Maja Nowak, Zofia Dzierżewicz
- Review articles
- Clinical Dermatology
- Start page:
- Final page:
- glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK), copper, ion transport, biological availability, skin aging
Wrinkles in the skin are caused by degenerative changes in the proteins of the dermal extracellular matrix and by reactive oxygen particles generation in skin cells.
Stimulation of neosynthesis of these proteins in the dermis may result in improvement of wrinkles. Fibroblasts are responsible for new collagen and other protein
synthesis in the dermis. There are many anti-wrinkle products, for example tretinoin or retinol which improve fine wrinkles by increasing collagen production, but
these compounds have irritating properties. Recently much attention has been focuced on the peptides and copper peptide complexes, which have a good skin
tolerance. These peptides were first described as growth factors for a variety of differentiated cells but recent data suggested a physiological role related to the
process of wound healing and tissue repair. Peptides, such as Gly-His-Lys (GHK) may be used to stabilize and deliver copper into cells. As a cosmeceutical, copper
peptides could improve skin firmness, fine wrinkles, and hyperpigmentation. It participates in collagen and elastin formation, downregulates matrix metalloproteinases,
and reduces the activity of collagenase. Copper is a required cofactor for the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), therefore it has an antioxidant properties.